Vietnam has a small grazing area of around only 329,000 hectares (MARD, 2014). Of which, 58% is located in the Northern Mountains and Midlands. Smallholders in the lowland areas usually have less than 1 ha of land, while in the upland areas have less than 2 ha. Smallholders have increasingly moved from extensive to intensive production to produce beef more efficiently.
Rice straw with an annual production of about 21 million tonnes is used as the main source of feed in cattle production systems. Increasingly forage is grown to fatten cattle in the market oriented cattle production systems (Stur & Gray, 2014).
Commercial compound feeds (mainly corn and soybean) are also used in cattle fattening systems. The feed costs in Vietnam are high compared to international standards due to limited local production, low yields and import tariffs.